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Appendix A: Common workforce metrics

Theme: Workforce availability
Metric Sources referenced* Definition Formula Purpose
Employment type (Category)

Employment type profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of the organisation's total workforce by employment types within the workforce.

Employment types include:

Ongoing—Permanent employees.

  • Non-ongoing—Non-ongoing employees engaged for a specified term or task.
  • Casual—Non-ongoing staff engaged for duties that are irregular or intermittent.
  • Contractor—Workers paid through a third party.

Can also be presented as the percentage of the total workforce by employment type.

Note:

The total workforce includes employment types not included in total headcount.

For each employment type:

Headcount (Employment type)

Percentage breakdown

For each employment type:

Headcount (Employment type) / Headcount (Total workforce)*100

Useful for understanding the mix of your workforce in relation to types of employment arrangements.

Useful for organisations that frequently utilise or have large proportions of non-ongoing employees (or contractors or casuals).

Can be useful for examining seasonal or cyclical workload and ability to respond to surges in workforce demand.

Headcount

Total headcount

Developed in consultation with APS agencies.

The number of employees directly employed by the organisation at a point in time.

Includes:

  • All full-time and part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees engaged for a specified term or task, including those on leave, such as maternity leave, long service leave, etc.

Excludes:

  • *Non-ongoing staff engaged for duties that are irregular or intermittent (casuals).
  • *Workers paid through a third party (contractors).

*If you opt to include casuals and contractors in your total headcount, this should be specified clearly.

Number of ongoing employees + Number of non-ongoing employees (specified term/task)

Indicates the number of employees working for the organisation, regardless of hours worked, other working arrangements or leave.

Useful for workforce profiling as other workforce metrics are also provided in terms of headcount (recruitment and exit rates, for example).

Headcount is useful when measuring data that relates to individuals (such as age, gender, diversity, etc.).

Total headcount (Ongoing)

Adapted from 'Total headcount'.

The number of ongoing employees directly employed by the organisation at a point in time.

Number of ongoing employees

Indicates the size of the core workforce for the organisation, regardless of hours worked and other working arrangements or leave.

Average headcount

Adapted from 'Total headcount'.

The average number of employees directly employed by the organisation over a specified period.

Average headcount is the average of total headcount at the end of the period and total headcount at the beginning of the period.

Total headcount (end of period) + Total headcount (beginning of period) / 2

Removes unusual variances that can be associated with data at a point in time, and therefore gives a more accurate reflection of the level of staffing over the period.

Average headcount (Ongoing)

Adapted from 'Total headcount (Ongoing)' and 'Average headcount'.

The average number of ongoing employees directly employed by the organisation over a specified period.

Average headcount (ongoing) is the average of total headcount (ongoing) at the end of the period and total headcount (ongoing) at the beginning of the period.

Total headcount (Ongoing)(end of period) + Total headcount (Ongoing)(beginning of period) / 2

Removes unusual variances that can be associated with data at a point in time, and therefore gives a more accurate reflection of the level of ongoing staffing over the period.

Full time equivalent (FTE)

Total FTE

-Agency Survey.

The number of full-time equivalent employees directly employed by the organisation at a point in time.

Part-time employees are converted to full-time equivalent.

Includes:

  • all active full-time and part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees engaged for a specified term or task paid through payroll (part-time employees are converted to full-time equivalent based on the hours they work).

Excludes:

  • Overtime.
  • *Non-ongoing staff engaged for duties that are irregular or intermittent (casuals).
  • *Workers paid through a third party (contractors).
  • Employees on unpaid leave—see 'Note' below.

*If you opt to include casuals and contractors in your total FTE , this should be specified clearly.

Note:

There may be variations in the way systems calculate full-time equivalent. For example, Human Resources systems will generally include employees on leave without pay, whereas Financial systems won't generally include employees on leave without pay.

Number of full-time equivalent employees + Total part-time hours / Standard full-time hours

Example:

If standard (full-time) hours per fortnight = 75 and there are 200 employees, including 20 part-time employees:

180 are full-time

-10 work 40 hrs/fortnight

[= 10*(40 / 75) = 5.33 FTE ]

-6 work 30 hrs/fortnight

[= 6*(30 / 75) = 2.40 FTE )

-4 work 25 hrs/fortnight

[= 4*(25 / 75) = 1.33 FTE )

Therefore, Total FTE = 180(full-time employees) + [5.33+2.40+1.33] = 189.06

Indicates the number of active full-time equivalent employees (based on aggregated hours worked by all full-time and part-time employees) at a point in time, and is generally used to manage employee budget allocation and ensure adequate staffing.

Full-time equivalent (versus headcount) is useful when measuring workforce capacity and workforce cost.

Paid FTE

Adapted from 'Total FTE '.

The number of full-time equivalent employees receiving salary or wages by the organisation at the end of a pay period.

Part-time employees are converted to full-time equivalent.

Includes:

  • all active full-time and part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees engaged for a specified term or task paid through payroll (part-time employees are converted to full-time equivalent based on the hours they work).

Excludes:

  • Overtime.
  • *Non-ongoing staff engaged for duties that are irregular or intermittent (casuals).
  • *Workers paid through a third party (contractors).
  • Employees on unpaid leave.

Number of paid full-time equivalent employees + Total part-time hours / Standard full-time hours.

Example:

If standard (full-time) hours per fortnight = 75 and there are 200 employees, including 20 part-time employees:

180 are full-time

-10 work 40 hrs/fortnight

[= 10*(40 / 75) = 5.33 FTE ]

-6 work 30 hrs/fortnight

[= 6*(30 / 75) = 2.40 FTE )

-4 work 25 hrs/fortnight

[= 4*(25 / 75) = 1.33 FTE )

Therefore, Total FTE = 180(full-time employees) + [5.33+2.40+1.33] = 189.06

This metric is used as the basis to calculate the Average Staffing Level for the financial year.

Total FTE (Ongoing)

Adapted from 'Total FTE '.

The number of full-time equivalent ongoing employees directly employed by the organisation at a point in time.

Number of full-time equivalent employees (Ongoing) + Total part-time hours (Ongoing) / Standard full-time hours

Indicates the size of the core workforce for the organisation at a point in time, in terms of full-time equivalent employees, regardless of hours worked and other working arrangements.

Average FTE

Adapted from 'Total FTE '.

The average number of full-time equivalent employees employed by the organisation over a specified period.

Average FTE is the average of total FTE at the end of the period and total FTE at the beginning of the period.

Total FTE (end of period) + Total FTE (beginning of period) / 2

Useful for monitoring average workforce capacity and average workforce cost (salary).

Average FTE (Ongoing)

Adapted from 'Total FTE (Ongoing)' and 'Average FTE '.

The average number of full-time equivalent ongoing employees employed by the organisation over a specified period.

Average FTE (Ongoing) is the average of total FTE (Ongoing) at the end of the period and total FTE (Ongoing) at the beginning of the period.

Total FTE (Ongoing)(end of specified period) + Total FTE (Ongoing)(beginning of specified period) / 2

Useful for monitoring average workforce capacity and average workforce cost (salary) associated with the ongoing workforce.

Average staffing level (ASL)

  • Federal Budget website.

The number of full-time equivalent employees receiving salary or wages (Paid FTE ) by the organisation averaged over the financial year.

ASL can be measured at various time points over a financial year to enable tracking against the estimated ASL prescribed in the Portfolio Budget Statement for the organisation for that financial year.

 

Sum of Paid FTE (for each pay period from the beginning of the financial year up to and including the current pay period) / Number of pay periods (from the beginning of the financial year up to and including the current pay period)

Measures workforce expenditure against the estimated ASL prescribed in the Portfolio Budget Statement for the organisation for that financial year.

The organisation's estimated ASL is usually allocated across individual business units by the organisation's finance area to enable business units to manage their individual allocations.

Employment status

Employment status profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total headcount by number of full-time employees and part-time employees.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount by employment status.

Note:

Casuals and contractors should be recorded separately to other full-time and part-time employees as they reflect a contractual situation as opposed to workplace flexibility.

For each employment status:

Headcount (Employment status category)

Percentage breakdown:

For each employment status:

Headcount (Employment status category) / Total headcount*100

Useful for better understanding the organisation's workforce profile and workforce availability, and for monitoring and measuring access to and utilisation of flexible working arrangements.

Absence

Unscheduled absence rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Unscheduled absence rate', pp. 314 – 315).
  • SOSR .

The full-time equivalent number of unscheduled leave days as a percentage of the total full-time equivalent working days during the reporting period.

Unscheduled leave is defined as leave taken in recognition of circumstances that can generally arise irregularly or unexpectedly, making it difficult to plan, approve or budget for in advance, and which is inclusive of planned medical procedures.

Note:

Total unscheduled leave days excludes leave taken by non-ongoing staff engaged for duties that are irregular or intermittent (casuals) or workers paid through a third party (contractors).

Note:

By default, all other metrics based on total unscheduled leave days also exclude casuals and contractors.

Total FTE unscheduled leave days/Total FTE working days*100

Provides an indication of the prevalence of unscheduled leave in an organisation, and may be particularly useful for organisations that are significantly impacted by employee absences.

Can be useful for understanding the timing of absences and anticipate staffing needs, and can be indicative of costs and productivity losses.

Can also be indicative of workforce morale, or potential impact on workforce morale.

Unscheduled absence rate per employee

  • CLC Metrics ('Unscheduled absence days per employee', pp. 312 – 313).
  • SOSR .

The average number of full-time equivalent unscheduled leave days per full-time equivalent employee.

Total FTE unscheduled leave days / Total FTE*100

Unscheduled absence type profile

  • Agency Survey.

The breakdown of total full-time equivalent unscheduled leave days by leave type (leave types outlined below).

Can also be presented as the percentage of total full-time equivalent unscheduled leave days by leave type.

Unscheduled leave types include:

Sick—A workplace absence, regardless of duration, whether paid or unpaid, due to personal illness or injury or to undergo a planned medical procedure.

Carer's—A workplace absence, regardless of duration, whether paid or unpaid, to provide care or support for a member of the employee's immediate family or household who requires care or support.

Compensation—A workplace absence resulting from personal injury or disease sustained out of, or in the course of, employment (i.e. work related) and accepted by Comcare.

Specific types of miscellaneous/other—A workplace absence, regardless of duration, whether paid or unpaid, that is taken upon the death of a member of the employee's immediate family or household (bereavement), or to spend time with a seriously ill, injured or dying person who is a member of the employee's immediate family or household (compassionate), or in the event of an unexpected emergency.

Unauthorised—A workplace absence, regardless of duration, whether paid or unpaid, that given the circumstances is not supported or approved by management. For example an absence due to participation in workplace disputes.

For each unscheduled absence type:

Total FTE leave days (Unscheduled absence type)

Percentage breakdown:

For each unscheduled absence type:

Total FTE leave days (Unscheduled absence type) / Total FTE unscheduled leave days*100

Particularly useful for organisations that have identified an issue with unscheduled leave and wish to understand it further so they can implement targeted strategies or initiatives to address it.

Theme: Workforce profile
Metric Sources referenced* Definition Formula Purpose
Location

Location profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total headcount by geographic location.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount by location.

For each location:

Headcount (Location)

Percentage breakdown:

For each location:

Headcount (Location) / Total headcount*100

Particularly useful for organisations with a widespread workforce.

Also useful in linking to the external labour market (particularly regional and local labour markets).

Useful to understand the trends presenting within the data for different locations, across various workforce themes.

Occupational grouping/ Job family

Occupational group/ Job family profile

  • WFP Guide .
  • Job Family Model.
  • SOSR .

The breakdown of total full-time equivalent employees by occupational group (or job family).

Can also be presented as the percentage of total full-time equivalent employees by occupational group (or job family).

For each occupational group:

FTE (Occupational group)

Percentage breakdown:

For each occupational group:

FTE (Occupational group) / Total FTE*100

Useful for better understanding the composition of the organisation's workforce, to monitor occupational groupings or job families that are critical to business delivery, or of particular risk due to labour market shortages.

Also useful for monitoring over- or under-resourcing and workforce allocations, etc.

Useful to understand the trends presenting within the data for different occupational groupings or job families, across various workforce themes.

Work function

Work function profile

  • Internal ( APSC ) input.

The breakdown of total full-time equivalent employees by work function (ongoing functions versus temporary projects).

Can also be presented as the percentage of total full-time equivalent employees by work function.

Note:

Consideration might also be given to reporting on the number/percentage of total full-time equivalent employees on long term temporary transfer (e.g. greater than 90 days) to projects (temporary work functions)—by project—and the number/percentage of temporary vacancies (resulting from the temporary transfers) that are being back filled.

For each work function type:

FTE (work function type)

Percentage breakdown:

for each work function type:

FTE (work function type) / Total FTE*100

Useful for considering the impact on the workforce of temporary projects and analysing real staffing levels over time.

Classification level

Classification profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total headcount by classification level.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount by classification level.

Note:

Consideration needs to be given to whether this metric is measured on the basis of substantive classification (which excludes temporary assignment at another classification level) or actual classification (which includes temporary assignment at another classification level), or both.

While substantive classification reflects the underlying composition of the workforce itself, it does not accurately reflect the workforce currently required.

Reporting on both substantive and actual classification provides a clearer picture in relation to workforce supply, workforce demand, and workforce cost. It also provides information about the development opportunities available to staff.

For each classification level:

Headcount (Classification level)

Percentage breakdown:

For each classification level:

Headcount (Classification level) / Total headcount*100

Useful for monitoring the composition of the workforce.

May also be indicative of changing levels of work complexity, workforce cost, labour market shortages, and attraction issues, etc.

Useful to understand the trends presenting within the data for different classification levels, across various workforce themes.

EL to APS Classification Ratio

  • APS agency input.
  • CLC Metrics ('Staffing rate—managerial', pp. 458 – 459).
  • SOSR .

The number of EL employees for every APS employee.

Note:

You may also consider reporting on:

  • number of SES employees for every APS/ EL employee.
  • or number of EL 2 employees to employees at lower classifications.

Total headcount (APS classification levels) / Total headcount (EL classification levels)

Useful in understanding the proportion of managers to line staff, and for monitoring changing leadership patterns over time.

Age

Age profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.
  • CLC Metrics ('Age staffing breakdown', pp. 422 – 423).

The breakdown of total headcount (ongoing) by age group.

Age groups include:

  • Under 20 years
  • 20-24 years
  • 25-29 years
  • 30-34 years
  • 35-39 years
  • 40-44 years
  • 45-49 years
  • 50-54 years
  • 55-59 years
  • 60 years and over

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount (ongoing) by age group.

For each age group:

Headcount (Ongoing)(Age group)

Percentage breakdown:

For each age group:

Headcount (Ongoing)(Age group) / Total headcount (Ongoing)*100

Useful for assessing the potential risk posed by likely age retirements and associated loss of corporate knowledge, skills and experience.

Also useful in understanding employee preferences and behaviours, to inform employment value propositions, for example.

Approaching retirement age rate (50+)

  • CLC Metrics ('Staffing rate—50+ years old', pp. 430 – 431).

The number of ongoing employees in the age range considered to be approaching retirement (50 years or older) as a percentage of total headcount (ongoing).

Headcount (Ongoing)(50 years or older) / Total headcount(Ongoing)*100

Useful for assessing the potential risk posed by likely age retirements and associated loss of corporate knowledge, skills and experience.

Average workforce age

  • CLC Metrics ('Average workforce age', pp. 424 – 425).

The average age of total headcount (ongoing).

Sum of all ongoing employees' ages / Total headcount (Ongoing)

Useful for assessing the potential risk posed by likely age retirements and associated loss of corporate knowledge, skills and experience.

Also useful in understanding employee preferences and behaviours, to inform employment value propositions, for example.

As a single metric, provides a quick and simple indication of workforce age, but does not provide any indication of the dispersion of ages around the average.

Gender

Gender profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total headcount by number of men and number of women employees.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount by gender.

For each gender:

Headcount (Gender)

Percentage breakdown:

For each gender:

Headcount (Gender) / Total headcount*100

Useful for monitoring the composition of the organisation's workforce, and to assist with promotion of workforce diversity.

Diversity

Workforce diversity profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total headcount (ongoing) by diversity group.

Diversity groups include:

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) 1—People born overseas who arrived in Australia after the age of five and whose first language was not English.

Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) 2—Children of migrants including: those who were born overseas and arrived in Australia when they were aged five or younger but did not speak English as a first language; those who were Australian born but did not speak English as a first language and had at least one NESB 1 parent; and those people who spoke English as a first language and had neither parent speaking English as a first language.

Disability

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount (ongoing) by diversity group.

For each diversity group:

Headcount (Ongoing) (Diversity group)

Percentage breakdown:

For each diversity group:

Headcount (Ongoing) (Diversity group) / Total headcount(Ongoing)*100

Useful for monitoring the composition of the organisation's workforce, and to assist with promotion of workforce diversity.

Theme: Workforce mobility
Metric Sources referenced* Definition Formula Purpose
Recruitment

Recruitment rate

  • CLC Metrics ('External hire rate', pp. 34 – 35).

The number of ongoing employees recruited during the period as a percentage of average headcount (ongoing) for the period.

Recruitment headcount (Ongoing) / Average headcount (Ongoing)*100

Useful for monitoring the volume of recruitment activity, and the rate at which new employees are entering the organisation.

Provides an indication of the relative 'newness' of the workforce, and can also be indicative of the rate of turnover.

Internal and External recruitment rate

  • SOSR .

The percentage of competitive selection exercises (for ongoing positions) filled by internal applicants, and the percentage filled by external applicants.

Number of competitive selection exercises (Ongoing positions) filled by internal/external applicants / Total competitive selection exercises (Ongoing positions) filled*100

Provides an indication of the extent to which the organisation's employees are capable of taking up new positions in the organisation.

Is indicative of how appropriately employees have been developed and the availability of a broad internal succession pool.

Can also be indicative of the level of insularity of the organisation, and its capacity to compete effectively as a preferred employer.

Net recruitment rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Net hire ratio', pp. 36 – 37).

The number of ongoing employees recruited during the period for every ongoing employee terminated during the period.

Recruitment headcount (Ongoing) / Termination headcount (Ongoing)*100

Indicates whether the organisation's workforce is growing (net recruitment rate greater than 1) or contracting (net recruitment rate less than 1).

Promotion rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Promotion rate', pp. 60 – 61).
  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The number of ongoing employees promoted during the period as a percentage of average headcount (ongoing) for the period.

Internal promotions (Ongoing) / Average headcount (Ongoing) *100

May be indicative of the level of employee performance and management and leadership skills and capabilities, or issues associated with the organisation's performance management process, or its capacity to compete effectively as a preferred employer.

Average time to finalise selection exercises

  • SOSR .

The average number of working days to finalise competitive selection exercises (for ongoing positions), from the date of advertising to when an offer of employment is made.

Note:

A selection exercises does not necessarily equate to one position. For example, a bulk selection round is counted as one selection exercise, even if more than position is filled through this process.

Sum of total working days to finalise all competitive selection exercises (Ongoing positions) / Offers accepted(Ongoing positions)

Useful for measuring the efficiency of selection processes, however does not account for the delay factor between an offer being made and the successful candidate commencing in the position.

Average time to fill selection exercises

  • SOSR .

The average number of working days to fill competitive selection exercises (for ongoing positions), from the date of advertising to the date the successful candidate commences in the position.

Sum of total working days to fill all competitive selection exercises (Ongoing positions) / Offers accepted(Ongoing positions)

Useful for measuring the time it takes to have new employees on board for positions that are vacant, and accounts for the delay factor between an offer being accepted and the successful candidate commencing in the position.

Applicant rate (internal and external recruitment processes)

  • CLC Metrics ('Applicant ratio', pp. 72 – 73).

The average number of applicants for internal and external recruitment processes.

Total applicants (Internal/external recruitment process) / Total offers accepted

Useful for gauging the resource requirement for conducting recruitment processes, and can also be indicative of the level of demand for various positions and the organisation's capacity to compete effectively as a preferred employer.

Secondments

Secondment rate (in to and out of the organisation)

Developed in consultation with APS agencies.

The number of secondments of ongoing employees (in to/out of the organisation) as a percentage of total movements of ongoing employees..

Secondments (In/out) / Total movements*100

Useful for examining the availability of skills development opportunities for employees through secondments out of the organisation.

Also useful for measuring the level of secondments to the organisation, which provide an alternative source for filling temporary skills demands and a source of new ideas, creativity and innovation.

Transfers

Internal transfer rate

  • SOSR .
  • CLC Metrics ('Lateral mobility', pp. 58 – 59).

The number of permanent lateral movements of ongoing employees as a percentage of total movements of ongoing employees.

Lateral movements / Total movements*100

Useful for examining the availability of skills development opportunities for employees through lateral moves across the organisation.

External transfer rate (in to and out of the organisation)

  • SOSR .

The number of permanent external movements of ongoing employees (in to/out of the organisation) as a percentage of the total movements of ongoing employees.

External movements (In/out) / Total movements*100

Useful for tracking the level of mobility in to and out of the organisation.

Exits

Agency exit rate

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.
  • CLC Metrics ('Termination rate', pp. 120 – 121).

The number of ongoing employees who left the organisation during the period (voluntarily and non-voluntarily) as a percentage of the average headcount (ongoing) for the period.

Includes:

  • Age retirements (s.30 of the PS Act)
  • Retrenchments (s. 29(3)(a))
  • Invalidity retirements (s.29(3)(d))
  • Other terminations of employment (ss 29(3)(b),(c),(e),(f),(g) and (h))
  • Compulsory moves to a non- APS agency (s.72(1)(b))
  • Resignations, and
  • Deaths
  • Promotions and permanent transfers to other organisations

Exits (Ongoing) / Average headcount (Ongoing)*100

Useful for monitoring likely impact on departure, vacancy and replacement costs, including loss of corporate knowledge, skills and experience, and potential impact on workforce morale and workload.

Can also be indicative of organisational insularity, and ineffective performance management processes.

APS Separation rate

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.
  • CLC Metrics ('Termination rate', pp. 120 – 121).

The number of ongoing employees who left the APS during the period (voluntarily and non-voluntarily) as a percentage of the total average headcount (ongoing) for the period.

Includes:

  • Age retirements (s.30 of the PS Act)
  • Retrenchments (s. 29(3)(a))
  • Invalidity retirements (s.29(3)(d))
  • Other terminations of employment (ss 29(3)(b),(c),(e),(f),(g) and (h))
  • Compulsory moves to a non- APS agency (s.72(1)(b))
  • Resignations, and
  • Deaths

Excludes:

  • Promotions and permanent transfers to other organisations

Separations (Ongoing) / Average headcount (Ongoing)*100

Useful for monitoring likely impact on departure, vacancy and replacement costs, including loss of corporate knowledge, skills and experience, and potential impact on workforce morale and workload.

Can also be indicative of organisational insularity, and ineffective performance management processes.

Exit profile

  • SOSR .
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The breakdown of total exits of ongoing employees during the period by exit type.

Exit types include:

  • Resignations
  • Age retirements
  • Promotions and permanent transfers (to other organisations)
  • Terminations
  • Retrenchments
  • Invalidity retirements
  • Compulsory moves to a non- APS agency
  • Deaths

Can also be presented as the percentage of total exits of ongoing employees by exit type.

For each exit type:

Headcount (Ongoing) (Exit type)

Percentage breakdown:

For each exit type:

Headcount (Ongoing)(Exit type) / Total exits (Ongoing)*100

Useful for examining the reason why staff are exiting to ensure workforce strategies effectively target potential workforce risks.

Voluntary exit rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Voluntary termination rate', pp.124 – 125).

The number of ongoing employees who left the organisation voluntarily during the period as a percentage of the average headcount (ongoing) for the period.

Includes:

  • age retirements
  • resignations
  • promotions
  • ongoing transfers

Excludes:

  • voluntary and involuntary redundancies
  • invalidity retirements
  • terminations
  • Machinery of Government changes

Voluntary exits (Ongoing) / Average headcount (Ongoing)*100

Useful for monitoring employee-initiated exits, to help identify gaps in the organisation's employment offer, or to identify emerging trends and issues that need to be addressed in particular business units or occupational groups or job families.

Voluntary exit profile

  • CLC Metrics ('Termination reason breakdown', pp. 122 – 123).
  • SOSR .

The breakdown of total voluntary exits of ongoing employees during the period by reason for exiting.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total voluntary exits of ongoing employees by exit type.

Reasons may include:

  • Desire to gain further experience
  • Lack of future career opportunities in current agency
  • Desire to try a different type of work/career change
  • Lack of recognition in current agency for doing a good job
  • Lack of opportunity to work on innovative projects in current job
  • Current remuneration package
  • Interests do not match responsibilities of current job
  • Senior leadership in current agency is of a poor quality
  • Promotions in current agency not based on fair and transparent recruitment processes
  • Desire to relocate

For each exit reason:

Voluntary exits (Ongoing)(Exit reason)

Percentage breakdown:

For each exit reason:

Voluntary exits (Ongoing)(Exit reason) / Total voluntary exits (Ongoing)*100

Useful for examining voluntary exit drivers to ensure workforce strategies effectively target potential workforce risks.

New starter exit rate

  • APS agency input.

The number of exits of new ongoing employees with short tenure (<1 year) as a percentage of the total number of new ongoing employees with short tenure (>1 year).

Exits (Ongoing)(Tenure < 1 year) / Headcount (Ongoing)(Tenure < 1 year)*100

Useful in comparing the number of exits of new starters to the total number of new starters who could have possibly exited during the period.

Retention rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Retention rate', pp. 116 – 117).
  • Statistical Bulletin.

The percentage of all ongoing employees present at any time during the period still with the organisation at the end of the period.

Note:

You may also consider reporting retention rates for high performers, high potential employees and employees in critical job roles, if these are identified by your organisation.

[Headcount (Ongoing)(Start of period) + External recruits (Ongoing) – Terminations (Ongoing)] / [Headcount (Ongoing)(Start of period) + External recruits]*100

Useful for monitoring the extent of departure, vacancy and replacement costs being incurred, and ensuring adequate resourcing, retention of corporate knowledge, and monitoring of existing retention strategies.

Can also be indicative of the organisation's level of insularity, and ineffective performance management systems.

Retention rate is sometimes preferred by organisations as a more positive way of measuring turnover than the Separation rate.

Tenure

Average workforce tenure

  • CLC Metrics ('Average workforce tenure', pp. 470 – 471).

The average tenure for the total number of ongoing employees at the end of the period.

Sum of tenure [(Total headcount (Ongoing)] (End of period) / Total headcount (Ongoing) (End of period)

Useful for monitoring loss or potential loss of experience and corporate knowledge.

Can also be indicative of organisational insularity and turnover, or organisational growth.

New starter tenure

  • CLC Metrics ('Staffing rate—< - year tenure', pp. 474 – 475).

The number of ongoing employees who have been employed by the organisation for less than 1 year as a percentage of total headcount of ongoing employees.

Headcount (Ongoing) (Tenure <1 year) / Total headcount (Ongoing) *100

Useful for monitoring the percentage of the workforce with less than one year of tenure (and associated workforce challenges).

Theme: Workforce capability
Metric Sources referenced* Definition Formula Purpose
Performance management

Performance appraisal participation rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Performance appraisal participation rate', pp. 164 – 165).
  • SOSR .

The number of ongoing employees who received a performance rating during the period as a percentage of the number of ongoing employees eligible to receive a performance rating.

Number of performance ratings (Ongoing)(End of period) / Headcount (Ongoing)(Eligible for appraisal at end of period)*100

Provides an indication of the extent to which individual performance is being managed, to ensure it aligns with organisational expectations.

Can also be indicative of the effectiveness of the performance management process and the level of employee engagement.

Performance rating profile

  • CLC Metrics ('Performance rating distribution', pp. 166 – 167).

The breakdown of total performance appraisal ratings for ongoing employees by rating category.

For each performance rating:

Headcount (Ongoing) (Performance rating) / Total performance ratings (Ongoing) *100

Provides an indication of the extent to which individual performance aligns to organisational expectations.

Can be useful in identifying training and development needs and opportunities.

Can also be indicative of the effectiveness of the performance management process and the abilities of managers to deal with underperformance.

Performance rating improvement rate

  • CLC Metrics ('Employee upgrade rate', pp.158 – 159).

The number of ongoing employees whose current performance rating is higher than the previous cycle, as a percentage of the total number of ongoing employees who participated in the process.

Headcount (Ongoing) (Improved performance rating) / Total performance ratings (Ongoing) *100

Can be useful in monitoring the success of learning and development strategies.

However, can be affected by changes in employees' positions. For example, a recently promoted employee might receive a lower performance rating than they did in the last cycle when they were in a position at a lower classification level.

Qualifications

Highest educational qualification profile

  • Statistical Bulletin.
  • SOSR .
  • CLC Metrics ('Educational attainment breakdown', pp. 180 – 181).

The breakdown of total headcount (ongoing) by highest educational qualification received.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total headcount (ongoing) by highest educational qualification received.

Qualifications may include:

  • Less than year 10
  • Year 10
  • Year 11
  • Year 12
  • Basic vocational qualification
  • Skilled vocational qualification
  • Associate diploma
  • Undergraduate diploma
  • Bachelor degree
  • Postgraduate diploma
  • Masters
  • Doctorate

For each qualification type:

Headcount (Ongoing) for which qualification type is the highest qualification received

Percentage breakdown:

For each qualification type:

Headcount (Ongoing) for which qualification type is the highest qualification received / Total headcount (Ongoing)*100

Provides an indication of the level of educational attainment of the workforce.

Can assist in understanding the academic training or certification level requirements of key functions.

Learning and development

Time spent on learning and development type profile

  • SOSR .

The breakdown of time spent on learning and development by ongoing employees, by type of learning and development.

Can also be presented as the percentage of total time spent on learning and development by ongoing employees, by type of learning and development.

Types of learning and development might include:

  • coaching and mentoring
  • e-learning
  • formal training and education courses
  • on-the-job training
  • academic study
  • conferences and seminars
  • classroom workshops

For each learning and development type:

FTE working days spent on learning and development type by ongoing employees

Percentage breakdown:

For each learning and development type:

FTE working days spent on learning and development type by ongoing employees / Total FTE working days spent on all learning and development types by ongoing employees*100

Useful in examining preferences, and level of demand for different methods of providing learning and development, to assist with development and implementation of future learning and development strategies.

Participation rate in learning and development programs

  • CLC Metrics ('Development program penetration rate', pp. 145 -147).

The number of ongoing employees who participated in learning and development programs as a percentage of the total number of ongoing employees who were eligible to participate in learning and development programs.

Headcount (Ongoing) who participated in learning and development programs / Average headcount (Ongoing)*100

Provides an indication of the extent to which eligible employees have the opportunity to participate in learning and development programs and the extent to which they utilise these opportunities.

Employee satisfaction with learning and development (by learning and development type)

  • SOSR .
  • CLC Metrics ('Employee satisfaction with training', pp. 212 -213).

Staff survey results provide insight into the level of satisfaction of employees with access to and quality of different types of learning and development activities.

Provides an indication of the effectiveness of different types of learning and development, and the level of access.

Useful in informing development and implementation of learning and development strategies.

Workforce engagement and intentions
Metric Sources referenced* Definition Formula Purpose
Employee engagement
   

Staff survey results provide insight into employee attitudes and intentions and can assist with assessing levels of motivation, interest and enthusiasm for work, career aspirations, resignation and other exit intentions, etc.

Each organisation will have developed its own methodologies for measuring employee engagement and intentions, based on their own needs and circumstances.

Employee intentions
   

Staff survey results provide insight into employee attitudes and intentions and can assist with assessing levels of motivation, interest and enthusiasm for work, career aspirations, resignation and other exit intentions, etc.

Each organisation will have developed its own methodologies for measuring employee engagement and intentions, based on their own needs and circumstances.

*Sources referenced in the development of the workforce metrics outlined in Appendix A include:

  • SOSR (State of the Service Report 2010–11).
  • Statistical Bulletin ( APS Statistical Bulletin 2010–11).
  • CLC Metrics ('The Metrics Standard: Establishing Standards for 200 Core Human Capital Measures', Corporate Leadership Council, 2005).
  • Agency Survey (2012 State of the Service Agency Survey).
  • Budget website (Australian Government Budget 2011-12 website: http://www.budget.gov.au/2012-13/content/bp1/html/bp1_bst6-10.htm).
  • WFP Guide ('Australian Public Service Workforce Planning Guide', Australian Public Service Commission, December 2011).
  • Job Family Model ('Australian Public Service Job Family Model', Australian Public Service Commission, December 2011).

Note: For a number of metrics outlined in the table above, a measurement unit of either headcount or full-time-equivalent number of employees is specifically suggested. This is based on the nature of the aspect of the workforce being measured, and the general purpose for measuring it. However, organisations will ultimately choose the unit of measurement that best suits their own needs and circumstances for each of the metrics and, in some cases, may utilise both.