State of the Service Report 2013–14

 

Appendix 5 - Diversity

This appendix examines employment patterns for key diversity groups in the Australian Public Service (APS). In particular it provides details from the APS Employment Database (APSED), State of the Service Agency Survey (agency survey) and APS Employee Census (employee census) data on Indigenous employees, employees with disability, employees from a non-English speaking background, mature age employees and women (including women in senior leadership).

Disclosure

The low rate of employee disclosure in relation to diversity continues to be an issue for the APS. To improve the collection of diversity data, amendments to the Australian Public Service Commissioner's Directions came into effect from 1 July 2013. These changes require agencies to ask all employees for diversity information while providing a ‘choose not to give this information’ option.

Of the data provided by agencies to APSED as at the end of June 2014, Indigenous status was not available for 22.2% of all employees (up from 21.4% last year). This includes 9.2% that chose not to give this information and 13.0% where no data had been provided. At the end of June 2014, disability status was not available for 29.3% of all employees (up from 28.7% last year). Of those, 4.9% chose not to give this information and for 24.5% no data had been provided.1 The absence of data for diversity status highlights a gap in agencies' collection and reporting of data to APSED.

In the 2014 employee census, 2.6% of all respondents (2.5% of ongoing employees) identified as Indigenous, compared with 2.4% reported in agencies' human resource (HR) systems and provided to APSED. The majority of Indigenous respondents (84%) reported they had disclosed this information, while 7% chose not to inform their agency, 2% reported they had never been asked for this information (down from 3% last year), 3% did not disclose for another reason and 5% were unsure whether they had disclosed the information.2

In 2014, 7.2% of employee census respondents identified as having some form of disability, compared with 3.1% in agencies' HR systems. Over half of respondents (54%) reported they had disclosed this information, while 14% chose not to inform their agency, 12% reported they had never been asked for this information (down from 13% last year), 5% did not disclose for another reason and 16% were unsure whether they had disclosed the information.3

Diversity representation

Section 18 of the Public Service Act 1999 (Public Service Act) requires agency heads to establish workplace diversity programmes, to assist in giving effect to the APS Employment Principles. Table 5.1 shows that 69% of APS agencies (covering 86% of the workforce) had such a programme in place for at least part of their agency in 2013–14, a decline from 75% last year. Machinery-of-government changes may account for some of this reduction. Of these agencies, 43% made the programme available on their website which is unchanged from last year.

Table A5.1. APS agencies' workplace diversity programmes, 2012–13 and 2013–14
2012–13 2013–14
N % N %
Source: Agency survey
Yes—whole agency 57 55 68 68
Yes—part agency 20 19 1 1
Being developed 14 14 25 25
No 23 12 6 6

Table A5.2 shows those agencies that did not have a workplace diversity programme this year. A further 25 agencies (covering 13% of the workforce) reported that they were in the process of developing workplace diversity programmes.

Table A5.2. APS agencies without workplace diversity programmes, 2013–14
Source: Agency survey
Aboriginal Hostels Limited
Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity
Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority
Defence Housing Australia
National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority
Safe Work Australia

Indigenous employment

The APS has an ongoing commitment to employing Indigenous Australians and continues to work towards the Indigenous employment target of 2.7% by 2015. The Australian Public Service Commission (the Commission) is responsible for the APS Indigenous Employment Strategy 2012–16 (the Strategy). The Strategy is aimed at supporting and enhancing agencies' Indigenous employment strategies and Indigenous representation by providing initiatives that focus on the attraction, recruitment, retention and career development of Indigenous Australians. Similar to last year, only 29% of agencies reported having a formal Indigenous Employment Strategy in 2013–14 and 40% of these made it available on their website (an increase from 34% last year).

Table A5.3 shows the representation of Indigenous employees in the APS from 2010 to 2014. As can be seen, the proportion of ongoing and non-ongoing Indigenous employees as reported in agencies' HR systems remained unchanged from last year at 2.4%. The proportion of ongoing and non-ongoing Indigenous employees as reported in the employee census also remained the same at 2.6%.

Table A5.3 Representation of Indigenous employees in the APS, 2010 to 2014
Employment type 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
APSED APSED APSED Census APSED Census APSED Census
N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED, employee census
Indigenous employees —ongoing and non-ongoing 4,094 2.5 3,936 2.4 3,916 2.3 2,104 2.4 3,931 2.4 2,594 2.6 3,843 2.4 2,378 2.6
Indigenous employees —ongoing 3,564 2.4 3,443 2.2 3,392 2.2 1,944 2.4 3,444 2.3 2,445 2.5 3,387 2.3 2,242 2.5

Note: Comparable employee census data not available for 2010 and 2011. APSED data is at 30 June.

Table A5.4 shows the representation of Indigenous employees in the APS by classification. The highest proportion of ongoing Indigenous employees are at the entry and junior levels, notably at the trainee classification.

Table A5.4. Representation of Indigenous employees in the APS by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification Indigenous employees—ongoing and non-ongoing Indigenous employees—ongoing
N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 127 33.9 122 33.2
Graduate 33 2.8 33 2.8
APS 1 325 6.5 121 15.2
APS 2 298 5.7 242 7.5
APS 3 708 3.6 606 3.8
APS 4 922 3.0 882 2.9
APS 5 552 2.6 539 2.6
APS 6 449 1.4 434 1.4
EL 1 307 1.1 291 1.1
EL 2 101 0.8 97 0.8
SES 1 19 1.0 18 0.9
SES 2 2 0.4 2 0.4
SES 3 . . . .
Total 3,843 2.4 3,387 2.3

In 2013–14, the Commission worked in partnership with over 40 agencies to provide employment pathways for 111 Indigenous Australians through the APS Indigenous Pathways Program. The program promotes the APS as an employer of choice to Indigenous job seekers and provided entry-level opportunities for Indigenous trainees (51), cadets (31) and graduates (29).

In June 2014, the Commission strengthened the role of APS Indigenous Liaison Officers (ILOs) to include pre and post-recruitment support and advice for Indigenous candidates. A feature of this role was the provision of face-to-face support to all trainees who were recruited through the APS Indigenous Pathways Program. Additionally, ILOs liaised directly with agency HR managers to coordinate four forums designed to share Indigenous employment strategies, success stories and learnings.

As part of the retention measures under the Strategy, the Commission ran a series of Indigenous employee forums across urban and regional Australia. The forums provided an opportunity for new Indigenous employees to network with more experienced APS employees. The forums were also an important mechanism in understanding the employment experiences of Indigenous employees to ensure the support provided is relevant to their needs. However, agency support for their Indigenous employees to attend these forums varied.

Engagements and separations

Due to reduced APS engagements in 2013–14, Indigenous engagements as a proportion of all ongoing APS engagements (7.0%) outweighed Indigenous separations as a proportion of all ongoing APS separations (3.5%). In terms of numbers of employees, however, 326 Indigenous employees were engaged in 2013–14, while 393 separated.

Figure A5.1 shows ongoing Indigenous employee engagements and separations from 2005 to 2014. Indigenous employee engagements increased from 5.1% in 2012–13 to 7.0% in 2013–14 as a proportion of all engagements. There has been a consistent increase in this proportion since 2010–11.

Figure A5.1. Engagements and separations—Indigenous employees, 2005 to 2014

Figure A5.1 is a line chart showing that from 2005 to 2014 the proportion of ongoing Indigenous employees and their representation among separations has remained relatively stable. However, the representation of Indigenous engagements has been less stable in recent years, increasing steadily from a low of 2.4% in 2011 to 7.0% in 2014.

Source: APSED

Figure A5.2 shows separations of ongoing Indigenous employees and the rest of the APS by type. In 2013–14, Indigenous employees were more likely to resign than other employees (55.7% compared with 35.5%) and were less likely to leave the APS at age retirement than other employees (6.6% compared with 17.7%). Indigenous employees were also more likely to have their employment terminated (6.6%) than other employees (1.2%). These findings highlight that the retention of Indigenous employees remains an issue for the APS.

In 2013, the Commission developed an online exit survey that has been made available to all APS agencies. The uptake has been slow (only 30 agencies are actively participating) and less than 2% of respondents (30 of 1,595) have identified as Indigenous. The small sample of Indigenous employees complicates analysis, however initial work suggests that Indigenous employees are more likely to work for another APS or Australian Government agency, the not-for-profit sector or be unemployed when they leave their agency. There are no statistically significant differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous employees on any of the organisational 'push' or 'pull' factors4, or personal factors for leaving their agency.

Figure A5.2. Separations of ongoing Indigenous employees by type of separation, 2013–14

Figure A5.2 is a pie chart showing, Indigenous employees were more likely to resign (55.7%) than the rest of the APS (35.5%) and were less likely to leave the APS at age retirement (6.6%) than other employees (17.7%). Indigenous employees were also more likely to have their employment terminated (6.6%) than the rest of the APS (1.2%).

Source: APSED

The employment experience

The following section presents employee census results for a number of key workforce satisfaction and engagement items.

Figure A5.3 shows that Indigenous employees have slightly higher levels of engagement across three components of the model—team, supervisor, agency—compared with other employees, although the difference is minor. This result is consistent with the previous two years.

Figure A5.3. Employee engagement—Indigenous employees, 2014

Figure A5.3 is a bar graph showing that Indigenous employees have slightly higher levels of engagement across three components of the model—team, supervisor, and agency—compared to the rest of the APS.

Source: Employee census

Table A5.5 shows Indigenous employees were generally positive about their employment experiences. Notably, however, Indigenous employees were considerably more likely than other APS employees to report they had been bullied or harassed in the workplace (23% compared with 16%). Indigenous employees were more likely to indicate they had reported the bullying/harassment than other employees (44% compared with 37%).

Indigenous employees were also slightly less likely to agree that people in their work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds than other employees (83% compared with 88%).

Table A5.5. Key employee census results—Indigenous employees, 2014
Employee census question Indigenous employees  Rest of APS
Agreed (%) Agreed (%)
Source: Employee census
I enjoy the work in my current job 78 77
I have a good immediate supervisor 79 79
I am fairly remunerated (e.g. salary, superannuation) for the work I do 65 68
The people in my work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds 83 88
In my agency, the senior leadership is of a high quality 55 51
During the last 12 months, have you been subjected to harassment or bullying in your workplace 23 16

Employees with disability

People with disability are underrepresented in the Australian workforce and face multiple barriers to full participation in Australia's economic and social life. The National Disability Strategy 2010–20 sets out a 10-year national policy framework to improve employment outcomes for people with disability across Australia. The As One—APS Disability Employment Strategy (As One) is part of this national strategy to include people with disability in public sector employment, and make the APS a more inclusive and confident employer of people with disability.

The APS has continued the implementation of As One in 2013–14. Most notable among these initiatives has been the RecruitAbility scheme and the release of a mental health guide for managers: Working Together: Promoting mental health and well-being at work.5 The RecruitAbility scheme supports people with disability applying for jobs in the APS by facilitating the progression of applicants with disability to further assessment, when they opt into the scheme and meet the minimum requirements for the position. In June 2013, 16 agencies (covering 69% of the workforce) participated in the pilot. The scheme was also applied in 11 graduate programmes. The pilot has been affected by the interim recruitment arrangements for the APS, as RecruitAbility relies on mainstream recruitment opportunities. Subject to a final evaluation, the scheme will eventually be offered to all APS agencies. Additionally, the Commission published the first of a series of online videos in September 2014 called Leading the Way.6 The videos feature senior leaders in the APS discussing the engagement and development of employees with disability, including challenging attitudes about people with disability in the community.

Across the APS, 32% of agencies (covering 89% of the workforce) had a formal strategy in 2013–14 for the employment of people with disability, a slight increase from last year (30%). Of the measures used to promote the employment of people with disability, the majority of agencies report they provided clear processes for employees to request reasonable adjustments (60%), although a smaller proportion identified a Senior Executive Service (SES) employee to act as a senior level advocate (48%).

Over the past 15 years, the representation of ongoing and non-ongoing employees who identify as having disability declined from 4.8% in 1999 to 3.1% in 2014. Table A5.6 shows the representation of employees who identify as having disability in the APS from 2010 to 2014 and Table A5.7 shows the representation of employees with disability in the APS by classification as at June 2014.

Table A5.6. Representation of employees reporting disability in the APS as at 30 June, 2010 to 2014
Employment type 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED
Employees reporting disability—ongoing and non-ongoing 5,246 3.2 5,117 3.1 5,030 3.0 4,926 2.9 4,971 3.1
Employees reporting disability—ongoing 5,021 3.3 4,895 3.2 4,796 3.1 4,681 3.1 4,778 3.3
Table A5.7. Representation of employees reporting disability in the APS by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification Employees reporting disability—ongoing and non-ongoing Employees reporting disability—ongoing
N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 8 2.1 8 2.2
Graduate 28 2.4 28 2.4
APS 1 143 2.9 99 12.5
APS 2 214 4.1 182 5.6
APS 3 482 2.5 422 2.6
APS 4 1,281 4.1 1,263 4.2
APS 5 673 3.2 670 3.2
APS 6 999 3.1 984 3.1
EL 1 756 2.7 748 2.8
EL 2 328 2.6 316 2.6
SES 1 45 2.3 45 2.4
SES 2 11 2.0 10 1.9
SES 3 3 2.3 3 2.6
Total 4,971 3.1 4,778 3.3

Engagements and separations

Figure A5.4 shows the engagements and separations of employees who identify as having disability as a proportion of all ongoing engagements and separations. Employees with disability represented 2.5% of engagements in 2013–14, an increase from 2.2% in 2012–13. Employees with disability constituted 4.8% of separations (down from 5.1% in 2012–13).

Figure A5.4. Engagements and separations—employees reporting disability, 2005 to 2014

Figure A5.4 is a line graph showing showing that from 2005 to 2014 the proportion of engagements of people reporting disability ranged between 1.5% and 2.7%, with a proportion of 2.5% in 2014. Employees with disability as a proportion of all ongoing employees steadily declined from 4.1% in 2005 to 3.3% in 2014. Employees reporting disability as a proportion of all separations increased from 3.9% in 2008 to 4.8% in 2014.

Source: APSED

Figure A5.5 shows separations by type for ongoing employees who identify as having disability compared to other APS employees. Employees reporting disability were less likely than other employees to resign (19.1% compared to 36.2%) and were more likely to separate from the APS at age retirement than other employees (22.6% compared to 17.3%).

Figure A5.5. Separations of ongoing employees reporting disability by type of separation, 2013–14

Figure A5.5 is a pie chart showing employees reporting disability (19.1%) were less likely than other employees to resign (36.2%) and were more likely (22.6%) to separate from the APS at age retirement than other employees (17.3%). Employees reporting disability (8.8%) were also more likely to leave the APS due to physical or mental incapacity than the rest of the APS (2.6%).

Source: APSED

The employment experience

The following section presents employee census results for a number of key workforce satisfaction and engagement items.

Figure A5.6 shows engagement levels across all four components of the employee engagement model—job, team, supervisor, agency—are lower for employees identifying as having disability than for other APS employees. This is a similar result to last year. Despite this finding, however, employee engagement has continued to gradually improve since 2012 for employees reporting disability.

Figure A5.6. Employee engagement—employees reporting disability, 2012 and 2014

Figure A5.6 is a bar graph showing engagement levels across all four components of the employee engagement model—job, team, supervisor, agency—are lower for employees identifying as having disability than for the rest of the APS. Employee engagement levels for people reporting disability have improved since 2012.

Source: Employee census

Table A5.8 shows employees reporting disability have different employment experiences to the rest of the APS. Employees reporting disability consistently indicated lower satisfaction with the work they do, their immediate supervisor, remuneration, their work group, and the senior leadership in their agency. They were also twice as likely to report they had been bullied or harassed in the past 12 months (30% compared with 15%), a slight increase from last year (29%). The Commission is planning further research in 2015 to gain more insight into these findings.

Table A5.8. Key employee census results—employees reporting disability, 2014
Employee census question Employees reporting disability Rest of APS
Agreed (%) Agreed (%)
Source: Employee census
I enjoy the work in my current job 71 78
I have a good immediate supervisor 73 79
I am fairly remunerated (e.g. salary, superannuation) for the work I do 60 68
The people in my work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds 82 88
In my agency, the senior leadership is of a high quality 43 52
During the last 12 months, have you been subjected to harassment or bullying in your workplace 30 15

Employees from a non-English speaking background

Employees from a non-English speaking background (NESB) are made up of two groups in APSED: NESB 1 and NESB 2. NESB 1 refers to people born overseas who arrived in Australia after the age of five and whose first language was not English (migrants). NESB 2 refers to children of migrants including:

  • those who were born overseas and arrived in Australia when they were aged five or younger but did not speak English as a first language
  • those who were Australian born but did not speak English as a first language and had at least one parent that did not speak English as a first language
  • those who were Australian born and had neither parent speaking English as a first language.

Table A5.9 shows that in 2013–14, as a proportion of all APS employees, the representation of ongoing and non-ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background remained unchanged from last year at 15.5%. Similarly, when considered separately, NESB 1 and NESB 2 ongoing and non-ongoing employees showed no change in representation as a proportion of all APS employees in 2013–14.

Table A.5.9 Representation of ongoing and non-ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background in the APS as at 30 June, 2010 to 2014
Status 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED
NESB (1 & 2) 24,613 15.0 25,540 15.4 26,174 15.6 25,831 15.5 24,658 15.5
NESB 1 8,310 5.1 8,730 5.3 8,953 5.3 8,850 5.3 8,442 5.3
NESB 2 16,303 9.9 16,810 10.1 17,221 10.2 16,981 10.2 16,216 10.2

Table A5.10 shows the proportion of ongoing APS employees who identified as being from a non-English speaking background. When considered separately, NESB 1 and NESB 2 ongoing employees experienced small increases in representation as a proportion of all APS employees. Table A5.11 details the representation of ongoing and non-ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background by classification.

Table A5.10. Representation of ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background in the APS as at 30 June, 2010 to 2014
Status 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED
NESB (1 & 2) 22,675 15.0 23,661 15.4 24,219 15.7 24,115 15.8 23,235 15.9
NESB 1 7,681 5.1 8,076 5.3 8,302 5.4 8,284 5.4 7,957 5.5
NESB 2 14,994 9.9 15,585 10.2 15,917 10.3 15,831 10.4 15,278 10.5
Table A5.11. Representation of ongoing and non-ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background in the APS by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification NESB (1 & 2) NESB 1 NESB 2
N % of classification N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 10 2.7 2 0.5 8 2.1
Graduate 163 14.1 24 2.1 139 12.0
APS 1 509 10.2 157 3.2 352 7.1
APS 2 720 13.8 224 4.3 496 9.5
APS 3 3,266 16.8 1,105 5.7 2,161 11.1
APS 4 4,966 16.1 1,629 5.3 3,337 10.8
APS 5 3,420 16.1 1,129 5.3 2,291 10.8
APS 6 5,564 17.0 2,003 6.1 3,561 10.9
EL 1 4,321 15.5 1,617 5.8 2,704 9.7
EL 2 1,545 12.2 513 4.1 1,032 8.2
SES 1 136 7.0 31 1.6 105 5.4
SES 2 32 5.8 6 1.1 26 4.7
SES 3 6 4.7 2 1.6 4 3.1
Total 24,658 15.5 8,442 5.3 16,216 10.2

Ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background were most likely to be employed between the APS 3 to Executive Level (EL) 1 classifications (Table A5.12).

Table A5.12. Representation of ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background in the APS by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification NESB (1 & 2) NESB 1 NESB 2
N % of classification N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 10 2.7 2 0.5 8 2.2
Graduate 162 14.0 24 2.1 138 11.9
APS 1 107 13.5 39 4.9 68 8.6
APS 2 469 14.4 153 4.7 316 9.7
APS 3 2,944 18.5 990 6.2 1,954 12.3
APS 4 4,874 16.3 1,595 5.3 3,279 11.0
APS 5 3,355 16.2 1,110 5.4 2,245 10.9
APS 6 5,428 17.0 1,940 6.1 3,488 11.0
EL 1 4,217 15.5 1,571 5.8 2,646 9.7
EL 2 1,497 12.2 494 4.0 1,003 8.2
SES 1 136 7.1 31 1.6 105 5.5
SES 2 30 5.6 6 1.1 24 4.5
SES 3 6 5.1 2 1.7 4 3.4
Total 23,235 15.9 7,957 5.5 15,278 10.5

Engagements and separations

Figure A5.7 shows engagements and separations for ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background as a proportion of all ongoing engagements and separations. Separations exceed engagements for this group for the first time in several years. In 2013–14, people from a non-English speaking background represented 12.2% of all engagements, indicating a continuous decline since a peak in 2010–11. Employees from a non-English speaking background constituted 13.3% of all separations from the APS in 2013–14.

Figure A5.7. Engagements and separations—employees from a non-English speaking background (NESB 1 & 2), 2005 to 2014

Figure 5.7 is a line chart showing from 2005 to 2014, the proportion of all ongoing employees from a non-English speaking background rose from 14.2% to 16.0%. Engagements were at 13.0% in 2005, rising to 17.4% in 2011, and then dropped to 12.2% in 2014. The proportion of total separations made up of employees from a non-English speaking background increased steadily from 10.2% in 2005 to 13.3% in 2014.

Source: APSED

In 2013–14, NESB 1 employees constituted 3.3% of all engagements and NESB 2 employees constituted 8.9% of all engagements, a decline from the previous year (4.9% and 10.0% respectively). As a proportion of all separations, NESB 1 employees represented 4.4% of all separations and NESB 2 employees represented 8.9% of all separations, a minor increase from last year (4.0% and 8.8% respectively).

Figure A5.8 shows the separation activity of employees from a non-English speaking background by type of separation. In 2013–14, these employees were more likely to be retrenched than the rest of the APS (44.9% compared with 41.0%) and were less likely to resign than other employees (31.8% compared with 36.9%). Employees from a non-English speaking background were also slightly more likely to leave the APS at age retirement (18.3%) than other employees (17.1%).

Figure A5.8. Separations of employees from a non-English speaking background (NESB 1 & 2) by type of separation, 2013–14

Figure A5.8 is a pie chart showing employees from a non-English speaking background (44.9%) were more likely to be retrenched than the rest of the APS (41.0%) and were less likely (31.8%) to resign than other employees (36.9%). Employees from a non-English speaking background (18.3%) were also slightly more likely to leave the APS at age retirement than the rest of the APS (17.1%).

Source: APSED

The employment experience

The following section presents employee census results for a number of key workforce satisfaction and engagement items. Employees from non-English speaking backgrounds are defined in the employee census as those born overseas and whose first language was not English.7

Figure A5.9 shows employees from a non-English speaking background indicate similar levels of engagement as other employees, although agency engagement is slightly higher for employees from a non-English speaking background.

Figure A5.9. Employee engagement—employees from a non-English speaking background (NESB 1 & 2), 2014

Figure A5.9 is a bar graph showing employees from a non-English speaking background have similar level of employee engagement compared to the rest of the APS, but show slightly higher levels of employee engagement for the agency component than other employees.

Source: Employee census

Table A5.13 shows employees from a non-English speaking background have similar employee experiences to the rest of the APS. Employees from non-English speaking backgrounds, however, were less likely to agree that the people in their work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds (85% compared to 89%) and that they were fairly remunerated (60% compared to 69%) than other APS employees.

Table A5.13. Key employee census results—employees from a non-English speaking background, 2014
Employee census question Employees from a non-English speaking background Rest of APS
Agreed (%) Agreed (%)
Source: Employee census
I enjoy the work in my current job 77 77
I have a good immediate supervisor 78 79
I am fairly remunerated (e.g. salary, superannuation) for the work I do 60 69
The people in my work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds 85 89
In my agency, the senior leadership is of a high quality 53 51
During the last 12 months, have you been subjected to harassment or bullying in your workplace 15 17

Mature age employees

For the purposes of this report, mature age employees are defined as aged 50 years and over. Table A5.14 shows the representation of mature age employees in the APS from 2010 to 2014. The proportion of ongoing and non-ongoing mature age employees increased slightly from 30.3% last year to 31.3% this year. Figure 5.10 shows that mature age employees have been rising as a proportion of the APS workforce for the last decade.

Table A5.14. Representation of mature age employees as at 30 June, 2010 to 2014
Employment type 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED
Mature age employees—ongoing and non-ongoing 45,251 27.5 47,182 28.4 49,573 29.5 50,688 30.3 49,823 31.3
Mature age employees—ongoing 42,247 28.0 43,968 28.7 45,526 29.5 46,381 30.5 45,748 31.4

Table A5.15 shows the representation of mature age employees in the APS by classification. Mature age employees are highly represented at SES classifications. This may be an indication of the level of experience and knowledge expected in these senior roles.

Table A5.15. Representation of mature age employees by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification Mature age employees—ongoing and non-ongoing Mature age employees—ongoing
N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 6 1.6 6 1.6
Graduate 4 0.3 4 0.3
APS 1 2,028 40.8 288 36.3
APS 2 2,061 39.6 1,350 41.6
APS 3 5,726 29.4 5,213 32.7
APS 4 8,649 28.0 8,411 28.1
APS 5 6,091 28.7 5,997 29.0
APS 6 9,698 29.7 9,464 29.7
EL 1 8,808 31.6 8,553 31.5
EL 2 5,310 42.0 5,076 41.5
SES 1 959 49.2 929 48.7
SES 2 383 69.3 367 69.0
SES 3 100 78.1 90 76.9
Total 49,823 31.3 45,748 31.4

Engagements and separations

Figure A5.10 shows the engagements and separations of mature age employees in the APS as a proportion of all ongoing engagements and separations. Mature age employees represented 12% of all ongoing engagements in 2013–14, an increase from 10.8% in 2012–13. Mature age employees constituted 52.3% of all ongoing separations in 2013–14 (up from 48.7% in 2012–13).

Figure A5.10. Engagements and separations—mature age employees, 2005 to 2014

Figure A5.10 is a line graph showing from 2005 to 2014, the proportion of all mature age ongoing employees rose from 24.2% to 31.4%. Engagements were at 9.6% in 2005, rising to 13.2% in 2006, and then dropped to 12.0% in 2014. The proportion of total separations made up by mature age employees increased from 32.7% in 2005 to 52.3% in 2014.

Source: APSED

Figure A5.11 shows separations by type for ongoing mature age employees in the APS. Mature age employees were more likely to be retrenched (51.1% compared with 31.0%) than other APS employees. Of the mature age employees that separated during 2013–14, 33.0% departed at age retirement.

Figure A5.11. Separations of ongoing mature age employees by type of separation, 2013–14

Figure A5.11 is a pie chart showing mature age employees (51.2%) were more likely to be retrenched than other APS employees (31.0%) and were less likely (11.0%) to resign than the rest of the APS (64.0%). In 2013–14, 33.0% of mature age employees departed at age retirement.

Source: APSED

The employment experience

The following section presents employee census results for a number of key workforce satisfaction and engagement items.

Figure A5.12 shows engagement levels for mature age employees for three components—job, team and agency—are slightly higher than for other APS employees. However, mature age employees showed slightly lower levels of supervisor engagement than the rest of the APS.

Figure A5.12. Employee engagement—mature age employees, 2014

Figure A5.12 is a bar graph showing the job, team, and agency components of employee engagement are slightly higher for mature age employees than other APS employees. Mature age employees showed slightly lower levels of supervisor engagement than the rest of the APS.

Source: Employee census

Table A5.16 shows mature age employees are generally positive about their employment experiences. Notably, however, mature age employees were less likely than other APS employees to agree that their senior leadership is of a high quality (48% compared with 54%).

Table A5.16. Key employee census results—mature age employees, 2014
Employee census question Mature age employees Rest of APS
Agreed (%) Agreed (%)
Source: Employee census
I enjoy the work in my current job 78 77
I have a good immediate supervisor 77 80
I am fairly remunerated (e.g. salary, superannuation) for the work I do 67 68
The people in my work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds 87 89
In my agency, the senior leadership is of a high quality 48 54
During the last 12 months, have you been subjected to harassment or bullying in your workplace 15 17

Women

As at June 2014, 58.0% of the APS workforce was female (57.6% of ongoing employees and 61.6% of non-ongoing employees). This representation declines the more senior the position, with ongoing women comprising 40.1% of the ongoing SES in 2014 (up from 39.7% in 2013).

Representation

Table A5.17 shows the representation of women in the APS from 2010 to 2014. As can be seen, the proportion of ongoing and non-ongoing women in the APS remained relatively stable this year at 58% (57.9% in 2013).

Table A5.17. Representation of women in the APS as at 30 June, 2010 to 2014
Employment type 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N % N % N % N % N %
Source: APSED
Female employees—ongoing and non-ongoing 94,964 57.8 95,730 57.6 96,880 57.6 96,664 57.9 92,230 58.0
Female employees—ongoing 86,717 57.4 88,076 57.4 88,367 57.3 87,517 57.5 84,078 57.6

Table A5.18 shows the representation of women in the APS by classification. In 2013–14, the largest proportion of ongoing and non-ongoing female employees was at the APS 4 level (68.8%) and the lowest proportion of female employees was at the SES 3 level (30.5%).

Table A5.18. Representation of women in the APS by classification as at 30 June, 2014
Classification Female employees—ongoing and non-ongoing Female employees—ongoing
N % of classification N % of classification
Source: APSED
Trainee 205 54.7 201 54.6
Graduate 569 49.1 568 49.0
APS 1 3,238 65.2 427 53.8
APS 2 3,198 61.5 2,140 65.9
APS 3 12,869 66.1 10,469 65.6
APS 4 21,229 68.8 20,665 69.1
APS 5 12,658 59.6 12,298 59.4
APS 6 18,064 55.2 17,619 55.3
EL 1 13,845 49.6 13,507 49.7
EL 2 5,312 42.0 5,158 42.2
SES 1 807 41.4 793 41.6
SES 2 197 35.6 194 36.5
SES 3 39 30.5 39 33.3
Total 92,230 58.0 84,078 57.6

Engagements and separations

In 2014, women accounted for 55.1% of all ongoing separations from the APS, an increase from 53.9% in the previous year. Women made up 55.6% of all ongoing APS engagements in 2013–14, a slight decrease from 57.6% the previous year.

Figure A5.13 shows ongoing female engagements to, and separations from, the APS as a proportion of all engagements and separations.

Figure A5.13. Engagements and separations of ongoing women, 2005 to 2014

Figure 5.13 is a line chart showing women as a proportion of engagements were 58.2% in 2005, this peaked in 2006 at 65.2% and then decreased to 55.7% in 2014. The proportion of ongoing women employees steadily increased from 54.2% in 2005 up to 57.6% in 2014. Women as proportion of total separations accounted for 46.2% in 2005 increasing to 55.1% of total separations in 2014.

Source: APSED

The employment experience

The following section presents employee census results for a number of key workforce satisfaction and engagement items.

Figure A5.14 shows only minor differences between engagement levels for men and women. This is consistent with last year's results.

Figure A5.14. Employee engagement—men and women, 2014

Figure A5.14 shows only minor differences between the employee engagement levels for men and women. Women showed slightly higher levels of engagement in job, supervisor and agency components.

Source: Employee census

Key employee census results for male and female employees in 2014 are shown in Table A5.19. These results demonstrate that, similar to men, women had generally positive employment experiences. However, women reported higher levels of satisfaction with the senior leadership in their agency (55% compared with 48%). They were also more likely than their male colleagues to agree they are fairly remunerated for the work they do (72% compared to 62%).

Female employees were also more likely to report that they had been bullied or harassed in the past 12 months than male employees (19% compared with 13%). Women, however, were more likely to indicate they reported the behaviour than men (39% compared with 33%).

Table A5.19. Key employee census results—male and female employees, 2014
Employee census question Female employees Male employees
Agreed (%) Agreed (%)
Source: Employee census
I enjoy the work in my current job 78 76
I have a good immediate supervisor 79 79
I am fairly remunerated (e.g. salary, superannuation) for the work I do 72 62
The people in my work group are accepting of people from diverse backgrounds 88 88
In my agency, the senior leadership is of a high quality 55 48
During the last 12 months, have you been subjected to harassment or bullying in your workplace 19 13

Women in senior leadership

For the second consecutive year, the agency survey asked agencies to report on the representation of women in their senior leadership group. Rather than reporting by classification level such as SES Band 2 or SES Band 3, agencies reported by level of hierarchy:

  • agency head
  • direct report to agency head (AH –1)
  • direct report to those who report directly to the agency head (AH –2).

This reporting format was put in place to reflect the reporting recommendations made by the Male Champions of Change to ASX 200 companies. The following tables show this data by agency for large, medium and small agencies. This data is discussed in Chapter 5.

Table A5.20. Representation of women in senior leadership for small agencies, 2013 and 2014
Agency Agency head Number of male AH –1 Number of female AH –1 Number of male AH –2 Number of female AH –2
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
Source: Agency survey
Administrative Appeals Tribunal Male Male 4 4 (80%) 1 1 (20%) 2 2 (17%) 11 10 (83%)
Australian Aged Care Quality Agency N/A Male N/A 4 (67%) N/A 2 (33%) N/A 9 (39%) N/A 14 (61%)
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Male Male 11 13 (87%) 3 2 (13%) 3 4 (50%) 15 4 (50%)
Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity Male Male 1 1 (50%) 1 1 (50%) 2 3 (43%) 3 4 (57%)
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care Female Female 4 2 (50%) 5 2 (50%) 7 3 (33%) 35 6 (67%)
Australian Fisheries Management Authority Male Male 2 3 (100%) 1 0 (0%) 13 15 (79%) 3 4 (21%)
Australian Human Rights Commission Female Female 2 0 (0%) 5 1 (100%) 5 5 (63%) 3 3 (38%)
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Male Male 0 0 (0%) 1 1 (100%) 9 1 (13%) 14 7 (88%)
Australian Institute of Criminology Male Male 3 3 (75%) 1 1 (25%) 6 6 (40%) 6 9 (60%)
Australian Institute of Family Studies Male Male 1 1 (33%) 2 2 (67%) 6 5 (29%) 8 12 (71%)
Australian National Maritime Museum Male Male 5 3 (50%) 2 3 (50%) 11 8 (36%) 18 14 (64%)
Australian Office of Financial Management Male Male 5 5 (83%) 1 1 (17%) 6 10 (53%) 9 9 (47%)
Australian Organ and Tissue Authority Female Female 1 0 (0%) 2 1 (100%) 2 3 (60%) 3 2 (40%)
Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority Female Female 3 2 (40%) 2 3 (60%) 15 20 (67%) 11 10 (33%)
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Male Male 5 5 (83%) 1 1 (17%) 13 16 (84%) 2 3 (16%)
Australian Research Council Male Male 1 0 (0%) 3 1 (100%) 4 1 (25%) 9 3 (75%)
Australian Skills Quality Authority Male Male 2 2 (50%) 3 2 (50%) 0 0 (0%) 0 0 (0%)
Australian Transport Safety Bureau Male Male 8 7 (88%) 2 1 (13%) 12 22 (96%) 1 1 (4%)
Cancer Australia Female Female 0 0 (0%) 2 2 (100%) 2 1 (17%) 3 5 (83%)
Commonwealth Grants Commission Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 6 6 (75%) 2 2 (25%)
CrimTrac Agency Male Male 2 1 (50%) 1 1 (50%) 10 10 (67%) 6 5 (33%)
Food Standards Australia New Zealand Male Male 3 3 (60%) 2 2 (40%) 8 12 (43%) 10 14 (54%)
Future Fund Management Agency Male Male 4 5 (83%) 3 1 (17%) 12 11 (61%) 15 7 (39%)
Independent Hospital Pricing Authority Male Male 2 2 (50%) 2 2 (50%) 6 6 (50%) 15 6 (50%)
Museum of Australian Democracy at Old Parliament House Female Female 2 2 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 2 2 (29%) 5 5 (71%)
National Blood Authority Male Male 3 4 (57%) 4 3 (43%) 5 6 (35%) 8 11 (65%)
National Capital Authority Male Male 3 3 (50%) 2 3 (50%) 1 0 (0%) 3 0 (0%)
National Film and Sound Archive Male Male 4 2 (67%) 0 1 (33%) 7 3 (38%) 9 5 (63%)
National Health and Medical Research Council Male Male 3 3 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 3 4 (67%) 3 2 (33%)
National Health Performance Authority Female Female 3 2 (33%) 4 4 (67%) 4 12 (43%) 13 16 (57%)
National Museum of Australia Male Male 2 1 (25%) 3 3 (75%) 7 7 (25%) 15 21 (75%)
National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority Female Female 5 5 (83%) 3 1 (17%) 11 10 (71%) 14 4 (29%)
National Portrait Gallery of Australia N/A Male N/A 3 (43%) N/A 4 (57%) N/A 0 (0%) N/A 0 (0%)
National Water Commission Male Female 2 3 (75%) 2 1 (25%) 5 3 (50%) 4 3 (50%)
Office of National Assessments Male Male 1 2 (100%) 1 0 (0%) 9 9 (90%) 2 1 (10%)
Office of Parliamentary Counsel Male Male 2 2 (40%) 2 3 (60%) 7 5 (31%) 13 11 (69%)
Office of the Australian Information Commissioner Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 0 0 (0%) 2 2 (100%)
Office of the Commonwealth Ombudsman Male Male 1 1 (50%) 1 1 (50%) 4 2 (50%) 4 2 (50%)
Office of the Fair Work Building Industry Inspectorate Male Male 3 5 (71%) 2 2 (29%) 5 9 (50%) 2 9 (50%)
Productivity Commission Male Male 1 1 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 2 2 (50%) 2 2 (50%)
Royal Australian Mint Male Male 5 7 (78%) 3 2 (22%) 30 21 (57%) 18 16 (43%)
Safe Work Australia Male Female 2 2 (50%) 2 2 (50%) 3 0 (0%) 11 0 (0%)
Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Female Female 3 3 (60%) 2 2 (40%) 7 7 (44%) 12 9 (56%)
Torres Strait Regional Authority Male Male 6 4 (67%) 1 2 (33%) 12 0 (0%) 12 0 (0%)
Workplace Gender Equality Agency Female Female 0 0 (0%) 5 5 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 5 4 (100%)
Table A5.21. Representation of women in senior leadership for medium agencies, 2013 and 2014
Agency Agency head Number of male AH −1 Number of female AH −1 Number of male AH −2 Number of female AH −2
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
Source: Agency survey
Aboriginal Hostels Limited Female Female 1 1 (33%) 2 2 (67%) 1 2 (25%) 3 6 (75%)
Australian Communications and Media Authority Male Male 4 5 (71%) 3 2 (29%) 11 7 (47%) 5 8 (53%)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Male Male 1 1 (50%) 0 1 (50%) 2 7 (78%) 2 2 (22%)
Australian Crime Commission Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 6 13 (72%) 5 5 (28%)
Australian Financial Security Authority Female Female 4 4 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 13 13 (72%) 8 5 (28%)
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Male Male 3 3 (38%) 6 5 (63%) 15 15 (41%) 23 22 (59%)
Australian National Audit Office Male Male 1 1 (100%) 1 0 (0%) 20 17 (63%) 7 10 (37%)
Australian Public Service Commission Male Male 1 1 (50%) 2 1 (50%) 4 4 (50%) 4 4 (50%)
Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority Female Male 1 3 (60%) 1 2 (40%) 4 7 (70%) 2 3 (30%)
Australian Trade Commission Male Male 5 5 (71%) 2 2 (29%) 14 15 (52%) 15 14 (48%)
Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre Male Male 1 3 (75%) 1 1 (25%) 5 8 (67%) 3 4 (33%)
Australian War Memorial Male Male 1 2 (50%) 2 2 (50%) 6 7 (47%) 10 8 (53%)
Clean Energy Regulator Female Female 5 5 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 7 9 (50%) 5 9 (50%)
Comcare Male Male 0 0 (0%) 2 2 (100%) 3 3 (60%) 4 2 (40%)
ComSuper Female Female 5 4 (44%) 5 5 (56%) 21 15 (44%) 31 19 (56%)
Defence Housing Australia Male Male 1 3 (75%) 2 1 (25%) 16 6 (67%) 9 3 (33%)
Department of Communications Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 6 6 (75%) 2 2 (25%)
Fair Work Commission Female Female 2 2 (40%) 2 3 (60%) 6 5 (38%) 16 8 (62%)
Family Court and Federal Circuit Court N/A Male N/A 8 (57%) N/A 6 (43%) N/A 17 (43%) N/A 23 (58%)
Federal Court of Australia Male Male 7 7 (58%) 5 5 (42%) 0 22 (59%) 0 15 (41%)
Geoscience Australia Male Male 6 6 (86%) 0 1 (14%) 16 11 (61%) 9 7 (39%)
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Male Male 2 4 (80%) 1 1 (20%) 11 10 (67%) 6 5 (33%)
Migration Review Tribunal and Refugee Review Tribunal Female Female 1 1 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 1 1 (50%) 1 1 (50%)
Murray Darling Basin Authority Female Female 4 3 (75%) 1 1 (25%) 4 11 (69%) 3 5 (31%)
National Archives of Australia Male Male 1 1 (20%) 4 4 (80%) 7 5 (24%) 15 16 (76%)
National Disability Insurance Agency N/A Male N/A 1 (20%) N/A 4 (80%) N/A 5 (29%) N/A 12 (71%)
National Library of Australia Female Female 2 2 (33%) 4 4 (67%) 12 17 (46%) 23 20 (54%)
Office of the Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions Male Male 7 5 (71%) 1 2 (29%) 13 11 (46%) 14 13 (54%)
Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman Male Female 5 2 (100%) 2 0 (0%) 8 4 (44%) 8 5 (56%)
Table A5.22. Representation of women in senior leadership for large agencies, 2013 and 2014
Agency Agency head Number of male AH −1 Number of female AH −1 Number of male AH −2 Number of female AH −2
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
Source: Agency survey
Agriculture Male Male 2 2 (50%) 1 2 (50%) 14 11 (65%) 7 6 (35%)
Attorney-General's Department Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 6 13 (54%) 11 11 (46%)
Australian Bureau of Statistics Male Male 5 5 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 14 12 (57%) 7 9 (43%)
Australian Electoral Commission Male Male 1 1 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 9 7 (64%) 8 4 (36%)
Australian Securities and Investments Commission Male Male 7 7 (70%) 3 3 (30%) 26 29 (53%) 16 26 (47%)
Australian Taxation Office Male Male 3 3 (100%) 0 0 (0%) 23 20 (67%) 10 10 (33%)
Bureau of Meteorology Male Male 3 3 (60%) 1 2 (40%) 12 25 (78%) 3 7 (22%)
Australian Customs and Border Protection Service Male Male 2 2 (50%) 2 2 (50%) 6 5 (50%) 7 5 (50%)
Defence Male Male 10 8 (100%) 1 0 (0%) 24 23 (79%) 7 6 (21%)
Education N/A Female N/A 3 (100%) N/A 0 (0%) N/A 2 (25%) N/A 6 (75%)
Employment N/A Female N/A 1 (25%) N/A 3 (75%) N/A 7 (41%) N/A 10 (59%)
Environment Male Male 3 3 (50%) 2 3 (50%) 8 13 (54%) 5 11 (46%)
Finance Male Male 1 1 (25%) 4 3 (75%) 17 12 (75%) 2 4 (25%)
Foreign Affairs and Trade Male Male 15 13 (81%) 3 3 (19%) 48 50 (79%) 14 13 (21%)
Health Female Female 9 6 (75%) 1 2 (25%) 16 17 (52%) 29 16 (48%)
Human Services Female Female 7 6 (67%) 2 3 (33%) 15 21 (50%) 21 21 (50%)
Immigration and Border Protection Male Male 4 4 (67%) 2 2 (33%) 12 13 (62%) 12 8 (38%)
Industry Male Female 2 3 (60%) 2 2 (40%) 15 16 (55%) 7 13 (45%)
Infrastructure and Regional Development Male Male 2 2 (67%) 1 1 (33%) 26 4 (31%) 12 9 (69%)
IP Australia Male Female 3 2 (50%) 4 2 (50%) 17 11 (52%) 19 10 (48%)
Prime Minister and Cabinet Male Male 2 2 (25%) 6 6 (75%) 6 13 (41%) 10 19 (59%)
Social Services Male Male 2 1 (20%) 3 4 (80%) 16 10 (50%) 17 10 (50%)
Treasury Male Male 6 5 (71%) 4 2 (29%) 33 31 (74%) 21 11 (26%)
Veterans' Affairs Male Male 10 4 (80%) 5 1 (20%) 11 6 (38%) 8 10 (63%)

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Footnotes

1 Each year APS agencies provide workforce data, including diversity data, to APSED. If the employee moves to another agency that has not provided this information to APSED, the previous data is retained in APSED.

2 Figures may not add to 100% due to rounding.

3 Figures may not add to 100% due to rounding.

4 A push factor is some aspect of the agency that contributes substantially to an employee leaving; a pull factor is some aspect of the new employer that specifically attracted the employee.

5 Australian Public Service Commission 2012, viewed 23 September 2014, http://www.apsc.gov.au/publications-and-media/current-publications/mental-health.

6 Australian Public Service Commission 2012, viewed 23 September 2014, http://www.apsc.gov.au/disability/as-one/leading-the-way

7 The definition of employees from a non-English speaking background differs between the APSED and employee census definitions.

Page ID: 64257 (5. Diversity)